MALARIA -A Threat to Man



         

          Malaria is considered as one of the deadliest disease because of its resistance to drugs,malaria
is a preventable and treatable disease which is caused by the parasite of the genus plasmodium transmitted by female anopheles mosquitoes carrying the sporozoa as it inoculates the sporozoites into the body during a blood  meal and it can also be transmitted through transmission of blood containing erythrocytic phase of the parasite.
        Malaria is highly endemic in many developing countries and is one of the major causes of morbidity(sickness) and mortality(death)in tropical Africa.

          PATHOGENS RESPONSIBLE FOR MALARIA
-Plasmodium falciparum.
-Plasmodium malariae.
-Plasmodium ovale.
-Plasmodium vivax

N:B;plasmodium falciparum and plasmodium vivax are the commonest species in virtually all parts of Africa.

KEY FACTS ABOUT MALARIA PARASITE

-Nearly half of the people in the world are at risk of malaria infection.

-P.falaparum is the parasite responsible for the vast majority of infections and deaths in Africa.

-In 2015, 91 countries and areas had ongoing malaria transmission.

-Malaria is preventable and curable and increased efforts are dramatically reducing the malaria burden in many places.

-Between 2010 and 2015, malaria incidence among populations at risk(the rate of new cases) fell by 21% globally.In that same period,malaria mortality rates among populations at risk fell by 29% globally among all age groups, and by 35% among children under 5.

-The WHO African region carries a disproportionately high share of the global malaria burden.In 2015, the region was home to 90% of malaria cases and 92% of malaria deaths.



LIFE CYCLE OF MALARIA PARASITE 1
-A mosquito(Anopheles) which is infected with the malaria parasite bites human,passing cells called sporozoites into the human blood stream.

-Sporozoites travel to the liver.Each sporozoites undergoes asexual reproduction,in which its nucleus splits to form two new cells called merozoites.

-Merozoites enter the bloodstream and infect red blood cells.


LIFE CYCLE OF MALARIA PARASITE 11 & 111
-In red blood cells, merozoites grow and divide to produce more merozoites,eventually causing the red blood cells to rupture.Some of the newly released merozoites go on to infect other red blood cells.

-Another mosquito bites the infected human,ingesting the gametocytes.

-In the mosquito's stomach,the gametocytes mature.Male and female gametocytes undergo sexual reproduction,uniting to form zygote.The zygote multiplies to form sporozoites,which travel to the mosquito's salivary glands.





SYMPTOMS OF MALARIA
-A sensation of cold with shivering.

-Fever,headaches and vomiting.

-Sweats,tiredness.

-Fever.

-Multiple convulsions.

-Impaired consciousness.

-Respiratory distress


PEOPLE AT RISK OF MALARIA 
1.Children under age 5.

2.Pregnant women.

3.Inhabitants of areas with poor environmental sanitation.

4.Non-immune visitors to areas of malaria transmission.


PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF MALARIA PARASITE
   Malaria though it's a deadly disease can also be prevented through the use of some preventive measures which are stated below;

1.Always sleep under a treated long lasting insecticides nets.

2.Obtain the medical know-how on the symptoms of malaria.

3.Maintain a clean environment.

4.Water reservoir should be properly covered to avoid breeding of mosquitoes.

5.Use of indoor insecticides.

6.Obtain an anti-malaria medicines to prevent malaria.

7.Sensitize the public about the deadly effect of malaria.


DRUGS USED IN TREATMENT OF MALARIA PARASITE 
    Some of the drugs being prescribed to an infected person are listed as follows;

-Use of chloroquine.

-Atovaquone.

-Artemether-lumefantrine.

-Mefloquine.

-Quinine.

-Quinidine.

             But the most effective drug used in treatment of malaria is the  Artemisinin combination
 therapy(ACT).


 Why is malaria a problem?
          There are various factors that makes it difficult to eradicate malaria in most countries especially African countries such as;

1.ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS: The environment mainly the tropical region and sub-Saharan regions of Africa is a very good site for the breeding of the parasites(mosquitoes).This is due to the fact that mosquitoes breeds in sites such as swamps,especially places where there is water logs.Thus,making it difficult to eliminate the prevalence and incidence of malaria.


2.POOR ACCESS TO HEALTH CARE FACILITIES: The unavailability of adequate and operational healthcare tends to encourage the rapid spread of malaria.This is due to the fact when there is adequate healthcare people will find it easy to receive treatment and get well. hence,halting the spread of malaria to another healthy person.

3. SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUES:The status of an individual determines his/her access to get healthcare likewise the level of education of an individual.

4.CULTURE AND TRADITION: Some culture and traditions prohibit the intake of medications and hence help in the increase of malaria spread in a given community.

5.CORRUPTION: Since there is presence of corruption in every system including the health sector,the health facilities provided are not desirable e.g providing a drug of which its major constituents capable of bringing cure is being replaced with a supplement that lacks such quality though won't cause harm to the patient.

6.RESISTANCE TO ANTI-MALARIA DRUGS: Due to inadequate intake of anti-malaria drugs p.falciparum in the blood stream(parasite)becomes resistance to anti-malaria drugs taken and this makes it very hard to eradicate malaria.

7.NON-EXISTENCE OF MALARIA VACCINE:Malaria is a problem because it has no vaccine unlike measles,polio and tuberculosis etc.that has vaccines to prevent the disease and that makes it very hard for malaria to be eradicated.


BURDEN OF MALARIA

1.It causes premature death and suffering.

2.It holds back economic growth and improvement in the standard of living.

3.Poor access to health system will lead to the spread of the disease.

4.Malaria infection results to 1 million deaths yearly globally of which 90% are from Africa.Malaria indirectly contributes to death and other illness such as malnutrition,respiratory infection and organ damage.

5.Malaria infection brings increase in personal expenditure and stress of family household.



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MALARIA -A Threat to Man MALARIA -A Threat to Man Reviewed by Gregory on July 30, 2017 Rating: 5

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