Monkeypox Takes Turn in


Monkeypox was first identified in the state serum institute in copenhagen Denmark,in 1958 during an investigation into a pox like disease among monkeys.Monkeypox is a zoonosis(a virus transmitted to humans from animals)with symptoms in humans similar to those seen in the past in small pox patients although less severe.Smallpox was eradicated in 1980.However,monkeypox still occurs sporadically in some part of Africa and was recently reported in Nigeria
N:B:Monkeypox is a member of the orthopoxvirus genus in the family poxviridae.

     In Africa,monkeypox has been found in many animal species like;
-Rope squirrels.
-Tree squirrels.
-Gambian rats.
-Striped mice.
-Dormice and primates.
         While in the USA,the virus is thought to have been transmitted from African animals to a number of susceptible Non-African species like(prairie dogs) with which they were co-housed.

-Monkeypox is a rare disease that occurs primarily in remote areas of Central and West Africa,near tropical rainforests.

-The monkeypox virus can cause a fatal illness in humans and although it is similar to human small pox which has been eradicated,it is much milder.

-The monkeypox virus is transmitted to people from various wild animals but has limited secondary spread through human-human transmission.

-Typically,case fatality in monkeypox outbreaks has been between 1% to 10% with most deaths occurring in younger age groups.

-There is no treatment or vaccine available.Although, prior smallpox vaccination was highly effective in preventing monkeypox as well.

-It can be transmitted from direct contact with the blood,bodily fluids or cutaneous or mucosal lesions of infected animals.

-Secondary or human-human,occurs as a result of close contact with infected respiratory tract secretions,skin lesions of an infected person or objects recently contaminated by an infected person.

-Transmission can also occur by inoculation or via the placenta(congenital monkeypox).There is no evidence to date,that person to person transmission alone can sustain monkeypox infections in the human population.

   The infection can be divided into two periods,which are;

1)The invasion period: (0-5 days) which is characterized by-
-Intense headache.
-Lymphadenopathy(swelling of the lymph node).
-Back ache.
-Intense asthenia(lack of energy).

2)The skin eruption period:(within 1-3 days after appearance of fever) where the various stages of the rash appears,often beginning on the face and then spreading elsewhere on the body.The face(95% of cases) and palms of the hands and soles of the feet (75%) are most affected.

     There are no specific treatments or vaccines available for monkeypox infection but outbreak can be controlled.Vaccination against smallpox has been proven to be 85% effective in preventing monkeypox in the past but the vaccine is no longer available to the general public after it was discontinued following global smallpox eradication.Nevertheless,smallpox vaccination will likely result in a milder disease course.

1.Restriction on animal trade especially mammals.
2.Sensitization and raising awareness of the risk factors.Thus,reducing the risk of infection in  people.
3.Controlling infection in healthcare settings-Health-workers should implement standard infection control precautions.
4.Make use of hand sanitizer after coming in contact with infected animals.

CREDIT LINK: World health organization.
Monkeypox Takes Turn in Monkeypox Takes Turn in Reviewed by Gregory on October 11, 2017 Rating: 5

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