Women and Cervical Cancer-gregoryhealthworld.com

cervical cancer
Overview of Cervical cancer 
Cervical cancer is malignant neoplasm of the cervix uteri or cervical area. One of the most common symptoms is abnormal vaginal bleeding, but in some cases there maybe no obvious symptoms until the cancer is in its advanced stages. Treatment consists of surgery (including local excision) in early stages and chemotherapy and radiotherapy in advanced stages of the disease.
Pap smear screening can identify potentially precancerous changes , treatment of high grade changes can prevent the development of cancer. In developed countries, the widespread use of cervical screening programs has reduced the incidence of invasive cervical cancer by 50% or more.

Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a necessary factor of the development of almost all cases of cervical cancer. Human papillomavirus vaccines effective against the two strain of HPV that currently cause approximately 70% of cervical cancer have been licensed in the U.S, Canada, Australia and the E.U. Since the vaccines only cover some of the cancer causing (high-risk) types of HPV, women should seek regular Pap smear screening, even after vaccination.

The cervix is the narrow portion of the uterus where it joins with the top of the vagina. Most cervical cancers are squamous cell carcinomas, arising in the squamous (flattened) epithelial cells that line the cervix. Adenocarcinoma, arising in glandular epithelial cells is the second most common types. Very rarely, cancer can arise in other types of cells in the cervix.

See: Foods to boost fertility and sperm count
See also: Basic hygiene tips to keep your vaginal healthy


  • Cervical cancer symptoms includes bleeding between menstrual periods and after sex.
  • It is both the fourth most common cause of cancer and the fourth most common cause of death from cancer in women.
  • About 70% of cervical cancer occur in developing countries.
  • Survival rates are good if cervical cancer is caught early.
  • Precancerous changes in the cervix may be treated with cryosurgery, cauterization, or laser surgery.
  • In medical research, the most famous immortalised cell line known as  Hela was developed from cervical caner cells of a woman named Henrietta Lacks.

Hpv infection with high risk types has been shown to be a necessary factor in the development of cervical cancer. HPV DNA maybe detected in virtually all cases of cervical cancer.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is found in about 99% of cervical cancers. There are over 100 different types of HPV, most of which are considered low-risk and do not cause cervical cancer. High-risk HPV types may cause cervical cell abnormalities or cancer. More than 70 percent of cervical cancer cases can be attributed to two types of the virus, HPV-16 and HPV-18, often referred to as high-risk HPV types.

HPV is estimated to be the most common sexually transmitted infection in the United States. In fact, by age 50 approximately 80% of women have been infected with some type of HPV. The majority of women infected with the HPV virus do NOT develop cervical cancer. For most women the HPV infection does not last long; 90% of HPV infections resolve on their own within 2 years. A small number of women do not clear the HPV virus and are considered to have “persistent infection. A woman with a persistent HPV infection is at greater risk of developing cervical cell abnormalities and cancer than a woman whose infection resolves on its own. Certain types of this virus are able to transform normal cervical cells into abnormal ones. In a small number of cases and usually over a long period of time (from several years to several decades), some of these abnormal cells may then develop into cervical cancer.

Early cervical cancer usually don't cause symptoms. When the cancer grows larger,women may notice one or more of these symptoms;

  • Abnormal vaginal bleeding.
  • Bleeding that occurs between regular menstrual periods.
  • Bleeding after sexual intercourse, douching or a pelvic exam.
  • Menstrual periods that last longer and are heavier than before.
  • Bleeding after going through menopause.
  • Increased vaginal discharge.
  • Pelvic pain.
  • Pain during sex.


Infections or other health problems may also cause these symptoms.Only a doctor can tell for sure, a woman with any of these symptoms should tell her doctor so that problems can be diagnosed and treated as early as possible.

Women with cervical cancer have many treatment options. The options are surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of methods.

The choice of treatment depends mainly on the size of the tumor and whether the cancer has spread. The treatment choice may also depend on whether you would like to become pregnant someday.

Early stage cervical cancer treatment options

Surgery is commonly used when the cancer is confined to the cervix. Radiotherapy may be used after surgery if a doctor believes there may still be cancer cells inside the body.

Radiotherapy may also be used to reduce the risk of recurrence (cancer coming back). If the surgeon wants to shrink the tumor to make it easier to operate, the person may receive chemotherapy although this is not a very common approach.

Before treatment starts, ask your health care team about possible side effects and how treatment may change your normal activities. Because cancer treatments often damage healthy cells and tissues, side effects are common. Side effects may not be the same for each person, and they may change from one treatment session to the next.


There are a number of measures that can be taken to reduce the chances of developing cervical cancer.

Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine

The link between the development of cervical cancer and some types of HPV is clear. If every female adheres to current HPV vaccination programs, cervical cancer could potentially be reduced.

Safe sex and cervical cancer

The HPV vaccine only protects against two HPV strains. There are other strains which can cause cervical cancer. Using a condom during sex helps protect from HPV infection.

Cervical screening

Regular cervical screening will make it much more likely that signs of cancer are picked up early and dealt with before the condition can develop, or spread too far. Screening does not detect cancer but detects changes to the cells of the cervix.

Having fewer sexual partners

The more sexual partners a woman has, the higher the risk of transmitting the HPV virus, which can lead to a higher likelihood of developing cervical cancer.

Delaying first sexual intercourse

The younger a female is when she has her first sexual intercourse, the higher the risk of HPV infection. The longer she delays it, the lower her risk.

Stopping smoking

Women who smoke and are infected with HPV have a higher risk of developing cervical cancer than people who do not.

Women and Cervical Cancer-gregoryhealthworld.com Women and Cervical Cancer-gregoryhealthworld.com Reviewed by Gregory on September 20, 2018 Rating: 5

1 comment:

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